Systems Security Certified Practitioner v7.0

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Exam contains 1078 questions

The Computer Security Policy Model the Orange Book is based on is which of the following?

  • A. Bell-LaPadula
  • B. Data Encryption Standard
  • C. Kerberos
  • D. Tempest


Answer : A

Explanation: The Computer Security Policy Model Orange Book is based is the Bell-
LaPadula Model. Orange Book Glossary.
The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a cryptographic algorithm. National Information
Security Glossary.
TEMPEST is related to limiting the electromagnetic emanations from electronic equipment.
Reference: U.S. Department of Defense, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria
(Orange Book), DOD 5200.28-STD. December 1985 (also available here).

The end result of implementing the principle of least privilege means which of the following?

  • A. Users would get access to only the info for which they have a need to know
  • B. Users can access all systems.
  • C. Users get new privileges added when they change positions.
  • D. Authorization creep.


Answer : A

Explanation: The principle of least privilege refers to allowing users to have only the access they need and not anything more. Thus, certain users may have no need to access any of the files on specific systems.
The following answers are incorrect:
Users can access all systems. Although the principle of least privilege limits what access and systems users have authorization to, not all users would have a need to know to access all of the systems. The best answer is still Users would get access to only the info for which they have a need to know as some of the users may not have a need to access a system.
Users get new privileges when they change positions. Although true that a user may indeed require new privileges, this is not a given fact and in actuality a user may require less privileges for a new position. The principle of least privilege would require that the rights required for the position be closely evaluated and where possible rights revoked.
Authorization creep. Authorization creep occurs when users are given additional rights with new positions and responsibilities. The principle of least privilege should actually prevent authorization creep.
The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

ISC2 OIG 2007 p.101,123 -
Shon Harris AIO v3 p148, 902-903

Which of the following is the most reliable authentication method for remote access?

  • A. Variable callback system
  • B. Synchronous token
  • C. Fixed callback system
  • D. Combination of callback and caller ID


Answer : B

Explanation: A Synchronous token generates a one-time password that is only valid for a short period of time. Once the password is used it is no longer valid, and it expires if not entered in the acceptable time frame.
The following answers are incorrect:
Variable callback system. Although variable callback systems are more flexible than fixed callback systems, the system assumes the identity of the individual unless two-factor authentication is also implemented. By itself, this method might allow an attacker access as a trusted user.
Fixed callback system. Authentication provides assurance that someone or something is who or what he/it is supposed to be. Callback systems authenticate a person, but anyone can pretend to be that person. They are tied to a specific place and phone number, which can be spoofed by implementing call-forwarding.
Combination of callback and Caller ID. The caller ID and callback functionality provides greater confidence and auditability of the caller's identity. By disconnecting and calling back only authorized phone numbers, the system has a greater confidence in the location of the call. However, unless combined with strong authentication, any individual at the location could obtain access.
The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

Shon Harris AIO v3 p. 140, 548 -
ISC2 OIG 2007 p. 152-153, 126-127

Which of the following is the most reliable, secure means of removing data from magnetic storage media such as a magnetic tape, or a cassette?

  • A. Degaussing
  • B. Parity Bit Manipulation
  • C. Zeroization
  • D. Buffer overflow


Answer : A

Explanation: A "Degausser (Otherwise known as a Bulk Eraser) has the main function of reducing to near zero the magnetic flux stored in the magnetized medium. Flux density is measured in Gauss or Tesla. The operation is speedier than overwriting and done in one short operation. This is achieved by subjecting the subject in bulk to a series of fields of alternating polarity and gradually decreasing strength.
The following answers are incorrect:Parity Bit Manipulation. Parity has to do with disk lerror detection, not data removal. A bit or series of bits appended to a character or block of characters to ensure that the information received is the same as the infromation that was sent.
Zeroization. Zeroization involves overwrting data to sanitize it. It is time-consuming and not foolproof. The potential of restoration of data does exist with this method.
Buffer overflow. This is a detractor. Although many Operating Systems use a disk buffer to temporarily hold data read from disk, its primary purpose has no connection to data removal. An overflow goes outside the constraints defined for the buffer and is a method used by an attacker to attempt access to a system.
The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

Shon Harris AIO v3. pg 908 -
Reference: What is degaussing.

The Orange Book is founded upon which security policy model?

  • A. The Biba Model
  • B. The Bell LaPadula Model
  • C. Clark-Wilson Model
  • D. TEMPEST


Answer : B

Explanation: From the glossary of Computer Security Basics:
The Bell-LaPadula model is the security policy model on which the Orange Book requirements are based. From the Orange Book definition, "A formal state transition model of computer security policy that describes a set of access control rules. In this formal model, the entities in a computer system are divided into abstract sets of subjects and objects. The notion of secure state is defined and it is proven that each state transition preserves security by moving from secure state to secure state; thus, inductively proving the system is secure. A system state is defined to be 'secure' if the only permitted access modes of subjects to objects are in accordance with a specific security policy. In order to determine whether or not a specific access mode is allowed, the clearance of a subject is compared to the classification of the object and a determination is made as to whether the subject is authorized for the specific access mode."
The Biba Model is an integrity model of computer security policy that describes a set of rules. In this model, a subject may not depend on any object or other subject that is less trusted than itself.
The Clark Wilson Model is an integrity model for computer security policy designed for a commercial environment. It addresses such concepts as nondiscretionary access control, privilege separation, and least privilege. TEMPEST is a government program that prevents the compromising electrical and electromagnetic signals that emanate from computers and related equipment from being intercepted and deciphered.
Source: RUSSEL, Deborah & GANGEMI, G.T. Sr., Computer Security Basics, O'Reilly,
1991.
Also: U.S. Department of Defense, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange
Book), DOD 5200.28-STD. December 1985 (also available here).

Which of the following is true of two-factor authentication?

  • A. It uses the RSA public-key signature based on integers with large prime factors.
  • B. It requires two measurements of hand geometry.
  • C. It does not use single sign-on technology.
  • D. It relies on two independent proofs of identity.


Answer : D

Explanation: The Answer: It relies on two independent proofs of identity. Two-factor authentication refers to using two independent proofs of identity, such as something the user has (e.g. a token card) and something the user knows (a password). Two-factor authentication may be used with single sign-on.
The following answers are incorrect: It requires two measurements of hand geometry.
Measuring hand geometry twice does not yield two independent proofs.
It uses the RSA public-key signature based on integers with large prime factors. RSA encryption uses integers with exactly two prime factors, but the term "two-factor authentication" is not used in that context.
It does not use single sign-on technology. This is a detractor.
The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

Shon Harris AIO v.3 p.129 -

ISC2 OIG, 2007 p. 126 -

The primary service provided by Kerberos is which of the following?

  • A. non-repudiation
  • B. confidentiality
  • C. authentication
  • D. authorization


Answer : C

Explanation: The Answer: authentication. Kerberos is an authentication service. It can use single-factor or multi-factor authentication methods.
The following answers are incorrect:
non-repudiation. Since Kerberos deals primarily with symmetric cryptography, it does not help with non-repudiation. confidentiality. Once the client is authenticated by Kerberos and obtains its session key and ticket, it may use them to assure confidentiality of its communication with a server; however, that is not a Kerberos service as such. authorization. Although Kerberos tickets may include some authorization information, the meaning of the authorization fields is not standardized in the Kerberos specifications, and authorization is not a primary Kerberos service.
The following reference(s) were/was used to create this question:

ISC2 OIG,2007 p. 179-184 -

Shon Harris AIO v.3 152-155 -

There are parallels between the trust models in Kerberos and Public Key Infrastructure
(PKI). When we compare them side by side, Kerberos tickets correspond most closely to which of the following?

  • A. public keys
  • B. private keys
  • C. public-key certificates
  • D. private-key certificates


Answer : C

Explanation: A Kerberos ticket is issued by a trusted third party. It is an encrypted data structure that includes the service encryption key. In that sense it is similar to a public-key certificate. However, the ticket is not the key.
The following answers are incorrect:
public keys. Kerberos tickets are not shared out publicly, so they are not like a PKI public key. private keys. Although a Kerberos ticket is not shared publicly, it is not a private key.
Private keys are associated with Asymmetric crypto system which is not used by Kerberos.
Kerberos uses only the Symmetric crypto system.
private key certificates. This is a detractor. There is no such thing as a private key certificate.

Which of the following is NOT a system-sensing wireless proximity card?

  • A. magnetically striped card
  • B. passive device
  • C. field-powered device
  • D. transponder


Answer : A

Explanation: Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide:
Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, page 342.

Which of the following is NOT a type of motion detector?

  • A. Photoelectric sensor
  • B. Passive infrared sensors
  • C. Microwave Sensor.
  • D. Ultrasonic Sensor.


Answer : A

Explanation: A photoelectric sensor does not "directly" sense motion there is a narrow beam that won't set off the sensor unless the beam is broken. Photoelectric sensors, along with dry contact switches, are a type of perimeter intrusion detector.
All of the other answers are valid types of motion detectors types.
The content below on the different types of sensors is from Wikepedia:

Indoor Sensors -
These types of sensors are designed for indoor use. Outdoor use would not be advised due to false alarm vulnerability and weather durability.Passive infrared detectors

C:\Users\MCS\Desktop\1.jpg -

Passive Infrared Sensor -
The passive infrared detector (PIR) is one of the most common detectors found in household and small business environments because it offers affordable and reliable functionality. The term passive means the detector is able to function without the need to generate and radiate its own energy (unlike ultrasonic and microwave volumetric intrusion detectors that are active in operation). PIRs are able to distinguish if an infrared emitting object is present by first learning the ambient temperature of the monitored space and then detecting a change in the temperature caused by the presence of an object. Using the principle of differentiation, which is a check of presence or nonpresence, PIRs verify if an intruder or object is actually there. Creating individual zones of detection where each zone comprises one or more layers can achieve differentiation. Between the zones there are areas of no sensitivity (dead zones) that are used by the sensor for comparison.

Ultrasonic detectors -
Using frequencies between 15 kHz and 75 kHz, these active detectors transmit ultrasonic sound waves that are inaudible to humans. The Doppler shift principle is the underlying method of operation, in which a change in frequency is detected due to object motion. This is caused when a moving object changes the frequency of sound waves around it. Two conditions must occur to successfully detect a Doppler shift event:
There must be motion of an object either towards or away from the receiver.
The motion of the object must cause a change in the ultrasonic frequency to the receiver relative to the transmitting frequency.
The ultrasonic detector operates by the transmitter emitting an ultrasonic signal into the area to be protected. The sound waves are reflected by solid objects (such as the surrounding floor, walls and ceiling) and then detected by the receiver. Because ultrasonic waves are transmitted through air, then hard-surfaced objects tend to reflect most of the ultrasonic energy, while soft surfaces tend to absorb most energy.
When the surfaces are stationary, the frequency of the waves detected by the receiver will be equal to the transmitted frequency. However, a change in frequency will occur as a result of the Doppler principle, when a person or object is moving towards or away from the detector. Such an event initiates an alarm signal. This technology is con

Which of the following is NOT a technique used to perform a penetration test?

  • A. traffic padding
  • B. scanning and probing
  • C. war dialing
  • D. sniffing


Answer : A

Explanation: Traffic padding is a countermeasure to traffic analysis.
Even if perfect cryptographic routines are used, the attacker can gain knowledge of the amount of traffic that was generated. The attacker might not know what Alice and Bob were talking about, but can know that they were talking and how much they talked. In certain circumstances this can be very bad. Consider for example when a military is organising a secret attack against another nation: it may suffice to alert the other nation for them to know merely that there is a lot of secret activity going on.
As another example, when encrypting Voice Over IP streams that use variable bit rate encoding, the number of bits per unit of time is not obscured, and this can be exploited to guess spoken phrases.
Padding messages is a way to make it harder to do traffic analysis. Normally, a number of random bits are appended to the end of the message with an indication at the end how much this random data is. The randomness should have a minimum value of 0, a maximum number of N and an even distribution between the two extremes. Note, that increasing 0 does not help, only increasing N helps, though that also means that a lower percentage of the channel will be used to transmit real data. Also note, that since the cryptographic routine is assumed to be uncrackable (otherwise the padding length itself is crackable), it does not help to put the padding anywhere else, e.g. at the beginning, in the middle, or in a sporadic manner.
The other answers are all techniques used to do Penetration Testing.
References:
KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide: Mastering the Ten
Domains of Computer Security, pages 233, 238.
and
https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Padding_%28cryptography%29#Traffic_anal ysis

In which of the following model are Subjects and Objects identified and the permissions applied to each subject/object combination are specified. Such a model can be used to quickly summarize what permissions a subject has for various system objects.

  • A. Access Control Matrix model
  • B. Take-Grant model
  • C. Bell-LaPadula model
  • D. Biba model


Answer : A

Explanation: An access control matrix is a table of subjects and objects indicating what actions individual subjects can take upon individual objects. Matrices are data structures that programmers implement as table lookups that will be used and enforced by the operating system.
This type of access control is usually an attribute of DAC models. The access rights can be assigned directly to the subjects (capabilities) or to the objects (ACLs).

Capability Table -
A capability table specifies the access rights a certain subject possesses pertaining to specific objects. A capability table is different from an ACL because the subject is bound to the capability table, whereas the object is bound to the ACL.
Access control lists (ACLs)
ACLs are used in several operating systems, applications, and router configurations. They are lists of subjects that are authorized to access a specific object, and they define what level of authorization is granted. Authorization can be specific to an individual, group, or role. ACLs map values from the access control matrix to the object.
Whereas a capability corresponds to a row in the access control matrix, the ACL corresponds to a column of the matrix.
NOTE: Ensure you are familiar with the terms Capability and ACLs for the purpose of the exam.
Resource(s) used for this question:
Harris, Shon (2012-10-25). CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition (Kindle Locations
5264-5267). McGraw-Hill. Kindle Edition.
or
Harris, Shon (2012-10-25). CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition, Page 229 and
Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third
Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 1923-1925). Auerbach Publications. Kindle
Edition.

In which of the following security models is the subject's clearance compared to the object's classification such that specific rules can be applied to control how the subject-to-object interactions take place?

  • A. Bell-LaPadula model
  • B. Biba model
  • C. Access Matrix model
  • D. Take-Grant model


Answer : A

Explanation: The Bell-LAPadula model is also called a multilevel security system because users with different clearances use the system and the system processes data with different classifications. Developed by the US Military in the 1970s.
A security model maps the abstract goals of the policy to information system terms by specifying explicit data structures and techniques necessary to enforce the security policy.
A security model is usually represented in mathematics and analytical ideas, which are mapped to system specifications and then developed by programmers through programming code. So we have a policy that encompasses security goals, such as each subject must be authenticated and authorized before accessing an object. The security model takes this requirement and provides the necessary mathematical formulas, relationships, and logic structure to be followed to accomplish this goal.
A system that employs the Bell-LaPadula model is called a multilevel security system because users with different clearances use the system, and the system processes data at different classification levels. The level at which information is classified determines the handling procedures that should be used. The Bell-LaPadula model is a state machine model that enforces the confidentiality aspects of access control. A matrix and security levels are used to determine if subjects can access different objects. The subjects clearance is compared to the objects classification and then specific rules are applied to control how subject-to-object subject-to-object interactions can take place.
Reference(s) used for this question:
Harris, Shon (2012-10-25). CISSP All-in-One Exam Guide, 6th Edition (p. 369). McGraw-
Hill. Kindle Edition.

Which of the following classes is the first level (lower) defined in the TCSEC (Orange Book) as mandatory protection?

  • A. B
  • B. A
  • C. C
  • D. D


Answer : A

Explanation: B level is the first Mandatory Access Control Level.
First published in 1983 and updated in 1985, the TCSEC, frequently referred to as the
Orange Book, was a United States Government Department of Defense (DoD) standard that sets basic standards for the implementation of security protections in computing systems. Primarily intended to help the DoD find products that met those basic standards,
TCSEC was used to evaluate, classify, and select computer systems being considered for the processing, storage, and retrieval of sensitive or classified information on military and government systems. As such, it was strongly focused on enforcing confidentiality with no focus on other aspects of security such as integrity or availability. Although it has since been superseded by the common criteria, it influenced the development of other product evaluation criteria, and some of its basic approach and terminology continues to be used.
Reference used for this question:
Hernandez CISSP, Steven (2012-12-21). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third
Edition ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 17920-17926). Auerbach Publications. Kindle
Edition.
and
THE source for all TCSEC "level" questions:
http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/secpubs/rainbow/std001.txt (paragraph 3 for this one)

Which of the following classes is defined in the TCSEC (Orange Book) as discretionary protection?

  • A. C
  • B. B
  • C. A
  • D. D


Answer : A

Explanation: Source: KRUTZ, Ronald L. & VINES, Russel D., The CISSP Prep Guide:
Mastering the Ten Domains of Computer Security, page 197.
Also: THE source for all TCSEC "level" questions:
http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/secpubs/rainbow/std001.txt

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Exam contains 1078 questions

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